Looking at Hawaii’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Program Through a Therapeutic Jurisprudence Lens

  • Lorana Bartels University of Canberra


This article examines Hawaii’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Program through the lens of therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ). The article presents an overview of TJ and solution-focused courts, followed by an overview of HOPE, including findings from four evaluations. It then provides a detailed description of recent observations of HOPE in practice, with particular focus on the warning hearing, sanctions for non-compliance, early termination for good behaviour, and the intersections between TJ, HOPE and procedural justice. The article concludes by arguing that there are a number of misunderstandings about HOPE and that it is best understood when viewed through a TJ lens.


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